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Breaking the Chain of Infection:
The chain of infection can be broken and infection avoided or disrupted by breaking any one of the links within the chain. For instance, healthcare workers may avoid the transmission of pathogens by using standard precautions. Immunization against common pathogens such as influenza, measles, and pertussis will thwart may viral agents. Additional examples follow:
- Correct hand hygiene is the most important basic practice for the prevention of transmission of pathogens
- Maintenance of skin and mucous membrane integrity (caregiver and client)
- Apply standard precautions when handling excreta, exudate, and soiled linen.
- Cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization of reusable instruments and equipment
- Maintenance of aseptic techniques, use of sterile equipment or single-use equipment
- Elimination of sources of infection (reservoirs)
- Early diagnosis of infectious diseases (decreased number of pathogens for transmission)
- Isolation of persons suffering from infectious diseases
- Appropriate handling and disposal of body secretions – vomitus, feces, sputum, blood and body fluids
- Cover nose and mouth when sneezing or coughing, and dispose of facial tissues after use.
- Immunization against infectious diseases
- Collection and disposal of waste in communities, adequate drainage, and sewerage facilities